This thread won't be updated much since I'm really not an expert in this field, but there are some recent events I thought might be interesting to share and explain. While I do have my opinions on these matters, I'll try to be as neutral as possible except when I've specified otherwise.
Some of you may have heard that there has been some recent controversy over the taking of the oath of office of some recently-elected members of Hong Kong's Legislative Council.
* Since the 1997 return of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the
People's Republic of China, Hong Kong has been governed under a "One
Country, Two Systems" arrangement, wherein Hong Kong's economy and
political systems are meant to be basically left alone (with some
exceptions, obviously) for 50 years starting then (i.e. until 2047). As a result, Hong Kong's status within the People's Republic of China is that of Special Administrative Region. The term "mainland China" (colloquial Cantonese: "large landmass") refers to the rest of the People's Republic of China. (The territory of Taiwan may or may not be included depending on the person's opinion of the legal status of Taiwan, but this is usually not at all relevant to any conversation about Hong Kong.) The term "Beijing" is often used metonymically for the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.
* Hong Kong's government has three branches -- executive, legislative, and judicial.
* The executive branch is currently headed by Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, a.k.a. C. Y. Leung, who is a pro-establishment politician. He may be running for re-election to this post. The Chief Executive position is elected by an Election Committee of 1200 members appointed by the Central People's Government of mainland China, who are meant to be "broadly representative" of Hong Kong.
* The Legislative Council, usually shortened to LegCo, is the legislature of Hong Kong. It has 70 seats. The majority coalition is a pro-establishment coalition that currently has 40 seats; it is sometimes referred to as the "pro-Beijing camp". The minority/opposition coalition currently has 28 seats; it is sometimes referred to as the "pro-democracy camp" or the "pan-democratic camp". There are currently two open seats formerly held by two anti-establishment legislators who were stripped of their seats during this recent controversy. Half of LegCo -- 35 seats -- is democratically elected, while 30 are selected by trade-based functional constituencies and 5 are apparently elected at-large from pre-selected candidates (see Wikipedia for more information: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative_Council_of_Hong_Kong
* Chinese names are generally written surname-first. English names are generally written surname-last, so sometimes you may see a name written both ways (e.g. John Tsang Chun-wah, who goes by John Tsang in English and Tsang Chun-wah in Cantonese). Names are transliterated from Cantonese Chinese rather than Mandarin Chinese, as Cantonese is the most prevalently spoken dialect in Hong Kong, and is used in speeh and conversation in most government functions, as well as most everyday interactions. English is sometimes used, and most (written/printed) signage and documentation in Hong Kong is bilingual in English and Chinese. (Cantonese and Mandarin use the same written words, although spoken Cantonese -- even in formal settings -- often makes use of rarely-written words that date from long ago and are not shared by Mandarin, for which written and spoken vocabularies are much closer. Speaking Cantonese using commonly-written words is usually seen as formal or literary in usage.) Sharing surnames -- especially sharing Romanized transliterations of surnames (i.e. when written in Roman alphabet letters) is very common amongst Chinese names and generally does NOT indicate family relationship.
More posts coming up later. This controversy dates back a couple months, so it'll take some time for me to write up everything.